The Habsburgs


Habsburg-Lorraine House

   Habsburg dynasty from the time a prisoner in 1736 dynastic alliance with the house of Lorraine called Habsburg-Lorraine. The first emperor of this dynasty was the son of Franz Stefan and Maria Theresa, Joseph II. He prirastit Habsburg possession through partitions of Poland (for which a so-called Austrian sailing. Lodomery Kingdom of Galicia and its capital in Lviv) but did not succeed in his plan to capture Bavaria (Palatinate Wittelsbach planned to compensate for the expense of the Austrian Netherlands, see the war for Bavarian Succession). In the era of the Napoleonic wars of the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, on its ruins arose Austrian Empire, and the Habsburgs lost the last pieces of heritage, Mary of Burgundy (of which was written a new state - Belgium). In the XIX century of Habsburg-Lorraine House split into five main branches (not counting morganatic kind of graphs Merani, originating from Archduke Johann):

   Imperial - here are all descendants of the last emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and the first Austrian Emperor Francis II, including his son, Emperor Ferdinand and grandchildren of Mexican Emperor Maximilian and Austria - Franz Joseph. The latter's son, Crown Prince Rudolf, committed suicide with his 17-year-old mistress, Maria von evenings. Left without a direct heir, the aged Francis Joseph inherited the throne, first nephew, Ferdinand, and after the assassination of the latter in Sarajevo - grand-nephew, the future Charles I. C 1922 House of Habsburg is headed by the latter's son - Crown Prince Otto (when returning to post-war Austria has refused the prefix "von" and all titles).

   Tuscan - the descendants of the younger brother of Franz II, Ferdinand of Austria, who was transferred to the management of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, secured by exchange at the Lorraine by his grandfather Franz I. This branch - the largest of all - continues to this day. During the Risorgimento (1860) Duke of Tuscany had been forced to surrender his capital (Florence) orders Garibaldi and settled in the Court of Vienna. In XX century the representatives of the branches were considered as candidates for the restored Spanish throne, but in the end refused to take the throne, by notice to the regent (General Franco) are no match for their rights in favor of the Count of Barcelona (who was also a descendant of the Habsburgs and the Bourbons), and one in turn, at the time of inauguration, in 1975, abdicated in favor of his son Juan Carlos.

   Teshenskuyu - the offspring of another brother, Francis II, Archduke Karl Johan, the celebrated commander in the Napoleonic wars. The title of Duke Teshenskogo he received from his uncle adopted him, Albert of Saxony. His granddaughter, Maria Christina of Austria - the Queen of Spain and regent during the minority of his son Alfonso XIII (from 1885 to 1902 years). Recent representatives teshenskoy branch of the Habsburgs descend from morganatic unions.

   Hungary - many to this day the descendants of the sixth brother, Francis II, Archduke Joseph, who served in the Hungarian governor (or the Palatine Hill) and earned great popularity among Hungarians. The first wife of the Archduke was Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna (the only marriages between the Habsburgs and the Romanovs, however, childless). From the third wife he had a daughter Henrietta Maria of Austria - later Queen of Belgium, the wife of Leopold II.

   Modena - the descendants of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and his son Francesco IV d'Este. These representatives of Habsburg-Lorraine inherited from the extinct house Modena rights to the Duchy of Modena, where until the Risorgimento and ruled as absolute monarchs. This branch of the dynasty in direct succession to cut short in 1876 by the granddaughter of Francesco IV, Maria Theresia of Modena, who in 1868 married the last king of Bavaria, Ludwig III.

   The title and name of the last Este Duke of Modena had been bequeathed to his nephew Franz Joseph, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. In 1914 he was assassinated in Sarajevo, and his descendants from a morganatic marriage with the Countess Hotek excluded from the succession. They are called not Habsburgs, and Gogenbergami and any claim to the thrones not (although some laws Habsburg possessions, for example., Hungary, the concept morganatic marriage never existed). Representatives of two other branches (the Austrian and Tuscan) enjoyed a brief titular form - "Archduke of Austria (Archduchess of Austria), Prince (Princess) of Hungary and Bohemia.