The Habsburgs


Accession to the throne of Austria

   Exit Habsburg on the European stage is connected with the name of the son of Count Albrecht IV of Rudolf IV (1218-1291). He joined the Habsburgs vast principality Kyburg, and in 1273 he was elected by the German princes, the King of Germany under the name of Rudolf I. After becoming king, Rudolf I tried to strengthen the central power of the Holy Roman Empire, but its main success was the victory over the Czech King Ottokar II in 1278, bringing under control of Rudolf I had of the Duchy of Austria and Styria. In 1282, the King gave these possessions to their children Albert I and Rudolph II. Thus, the Habsburgs became rulers of a vast and rich Danubian States, which quickly eclipsed their ancestral possessions in Switzerland, Swabia and Alsace.

   Descendants of Albert I managed to include in its monarchy Carinthia (1335) and Tirol (1365), making Austria the largest state in the south-eastern Germany. They played important roles in numerous conflicts vnutrinemetskih first half of the XIV century and for a time occupied the throne of the kingdom Germanskogo (Albert I in 1298-1308 years. And Frederick I, 1325-1330 Gg.) As well as the kingdom of Bohemia (Rudolf III, 1306-1307 years.). Peak capacity of the Austrian state occurred in a short time the reign of Rudolph IV (1358-1365), who claimed a special status in Austria and its complete independence from the Empire ("Privilegium Maius 1358). At the same time the core Habsburg possessions in northern and central Switzerland was lost and formed an independent Swiss Confederation. As a result of a conglomeration of territories under Hapsburg rule, was gradually transformed in the Austrian monarchy, headed by the dukes of Austria.

   Dukes of Austria

   Albert I (1282-1308, King of Germany from 1298) and Rudolf II (1282-1283) - children of King Rudolf I;

   Rudolph III (1298-1307, King of Bohemia from 1306), Frederick I (1308-1330, King of Germany from 1325), Leopold I (1308-1326), Otto the Jolly (1330-1339, Duke of Carinthia in 1335) and Albert II Wise (1326-1358, Duke of Carinthia in 1335) - Children of Albrecht I;

   Rudolph IV (1358-1365, Count of Tyrol from 1363).